Development of Critical thought as a Primary Goal of Educational Process
Competency education is a model that adapts to the needs of today's society. The 21st century student needs to develop, in addition to work skills, learning that allows him to perform better in his social and personal life. From this perspective, it is sought that education is extensive and is projected far beyond the transmission of knowledge, favouring the construction of knowledge through reflection and critical thinking. For this, it is necessary to use appropriate learning techniques in the classroom that favour the construction of such knowledge.
Critical thinking is a procedure that gives rational value to beliefs. The purpose of critical thinking is to generate a reflective judgment based on a nucleus of skill development. The critical thinking skills of interpretation, analysis and evaluation are described from the fourth to the sixth level in Bloom's taxonomy, which includes: analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In this sense, critical thinking explores beyond the last level of Bloom by inferring the consequences of decisions, arguing them through explanation in a process of dialogue, as well as self-regulating learning to obtain continuous improvement in performance levels of the competition.
For the development of critical thinking, a critical spirit must be encouraged, starting from a survey of curiosity, mental acuity, a dedicated reason and hunger to acquire reliable information. The reflection of this spirit is translated into a development that goes outside the classroom, where the student stands out for the curiosity of a wide range of help with assignment issues, his concern for acquiring good information, the confidence in his reasoning abilities, a willingness to acquire new points of view and honesty to face their own prejudices.
Using a critical thinking assessment test (PENCRISAL) before and after the use of the techniques, it was demonstrated that the development of skills of deduction, induction, practical reasoning, decision making and problem solving, was much more significant and enriching in the group where the PBL was used.
Education is the basis of a country's social and economic development. The great powers of the First World base a large part of their development on the growing increase of professionals trained in a competent manner and with interest and ability to get involved in the political and social issues that their country demands. Hence, the current university seeks to learn through the combination of work and study, that is, through their experience and knowledge. Therefore, the encouragement of a critical thinking plays a crucial role in the formation of any future professional. An individual who thinks critically tends to live rationally, reasonably and empathically.
When preconscious mental processes have an appropriate complex architecture, informed decisions can be made taking into account internal needs, objectives and external contingencies including the unconscious and preconscious part, and conscious experience. To generate this solid and well-grounded structure, the continuous construction of knowledge is necessary, which is generated through experience, interaction, promotion of analysis and reflection, as proposed by the constructivist theory.
To make this knowledge continuous, within the pedagogical area various teaching methods have been proposed to reinforce and invite to think in a more active way. From pre-school to university age, these techniques have been proposed and new forms of teaching are being proposed. In this case, the present research seeks to demonstrate whether or not the Problem Based Learning in particular can generate critical and reflective thinking.
Returning to the importance of the inclusion of competency-based education for the training of individuals capable of facing the demands of society and identifying critical thinking as a reflexive and constructive form of knowledge; it was proposed to use the PBL strategy as a way to favour generic and individual competences in higher education students. Working in the classroom using innovative teaching-learning techniques allows the group to be involved, favouring active participation. In addition, it is possible to observe how important skills for learning are developed at the same time that the presented problem is resolved.
The PBL favours the competences related to the judgment of a specific situation, with objective and subjective data. It could be said that the study did not affect the development in a significant way. Therefore, within the stated objectives, it was possible to reach the general objective, which was to determine if there is PC development through the PBL. For the specific objective, evidence was given that the analysis, reflection, synthesis, interpretation and inference are applicable when the aforementioned technique is used. To generate critical thinking, active learning is required. Learn a concept to internalize, apply and observe the value of what has been learned to evaluate and self-evaluate as an integral part of do my assignment knowledge.The research opens up new possibilities to continue investigating the subject exposed. Evidence that the relationship between the critical thinking and the PBL is already documented. The work in the classroom is a continuous challenge in which we must innovate every day to favour learning processes. The role of the teacher is to be active in this process, seeking the necessary tools to consolidate a learning that should have a substantial impact on the personal and academic development of young people. Always keeping in mind that teaching by competences favours the formation of integral and competent people in a society that requires entrepreneurs, eager for knowledge and with the ability to face the challenges that the world is demanding.